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Across the Oceans

Emigration From Cumberland and Westmorland before 1914


For centuries Cumbrian migrants left all that they knew and travelled to a new life.

The censuses help to trace migrants within Britain but emigrants are effectively invisible. By contacting relatives of pre-1914 emigrants Dr. Shepherd collected information of about 4000 or so named individuals, most of whom went to North america, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Themes of chain migration, clusters from home communities and in overseas destinations, returning emigrants, repeat emigration, reasons for leaving and occupations are explored, together with various classes of sojourners including convicted Cumbrians.
Analysis of the data has produced important results and ‘Across the Oceans’ adds to the literature on regional emigration. But equally, by including the accounts of the emigrant’s experiences, this book is of interest to readers who have a Cumbrian connection, whether at home or overseas.



Publication Date:

2011 May





Black & white photographs and diagrams